By Jeroen van Craenenbroeck
Within the Nineteen Eighties generative grammar well-known that sensible fabric is ready to undertaking syntactic constitution in conformity with the X-bar-format. This perception quickly ended in a substantial elevate within the stock of useful projections. the elemental notion at the back of this line of theorizing, which fits by means of the identify of cartography, is that sentence constitution should be represented as a template of linearly ordered positions, each one with their very own syntactic and semantic import. in recent times, in spite of the fact that, a few difficulties were raised for this technique. for instance, yes mixtures of syntactic components can't be linearly ordered. In mild of such difficulties a couple of replacement debts were explored. a few of them suggest a brand new (often interface-related) set off for flow, whereas others search replacement technique of accounting for varied be aware order styles. those choices to cartography don't shape a homogeneous team, nor has there so far been a discussion board the place those principles may be in comparison and faced with each other. This quantity fills that hole. It deals a diverse and in-depth view at the place taken by means of a considerable variety of researchers within the box this day on what's possibly probably the most hotly debated and arguable concerns in present-day generative grammar.
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Extra resources for Alternatives to Cartography
Such a shift takes place if the hearer answers a question about an entity different from the entity the original question was about. 8,9 (13) Hoe zit het met Fred? Wat heeft hij gegeten? ‘What about Fred? ’ Nou, dat weet ik niet, maar ik geloof ‘Well, I don’t know, but I believe’ 24 Ad Neeleman, Elena Titov, Hans van de Koot and Reiko Vermeulen a. dat Wim van de BONEN meer gegeten heeft dan has than that Bill from the beans more eaten vorig jaar. ’ b. # dat [van de BONEN]1 Wim t 1 meer gegeten heeft dan that from the beans Bill more eaten has than vorig jaar.
Odin mal’ˇcik ljubit KAZDUJU DEVOCKU. ’ ∃ > ∀; ∗ ∀ > ∃ ˇ V kaˇzdom klasse odnu devoˇcku ljubit KAZDYJ in every classroom one girl-ACC loves every ˇ MAL’CIK. c. ’ ∃ > ∀s ; ∗ ∀s > ∃ ˇ KAZDOMU Ty predstavil odnogo uˇcitelja you introduced one teacher-ACC every STUDENTU student-DAT 38 Ad Neeleman, Elena Titov, Hans van de Koot and Reiko Vermeulen d. ’ ∃ > ∀s ; ∗ ∀s > ∃ ˇ KAZDOGO Ty predstavil odnomu studentu you introduced one student-DAT every ˇ UCITELJA. 22 Even though these are fronted, they systematically take lowest scope.
Recall that an aboutness topic can be base-generated in a non-thematic position in the matrix clause and be associated with an (empty) pronoun inside a relative clause. However, as shown below, an unstressed wa-phrase licensed in a context like (31) does not display such behavior, regardless of its position: (32) Who did the dog that the child bought yesterday bite? a. # [sono kodomowa]1 kooen-de [NP [TP pro1 e2 kinoo that child-WA park-at yesterday katta] inu2 ]-ga JOHN-O kande-simatta. up b. # JOHN-O3 [sono kodomo-wa]1 kooen-de [NP [TP pro1 e2 John-ACC that child-WA park-at kinoo katta] inu2 ]-ga t3 kande-simatta.