By Frank H. Miller MD
The Consulting Editor of Radiologic Clinics, Frank Miller, provides a accomplished overview of grownup physique MR. Articles will comprise: physique MRI: quickly, effective, and complete; facing vascular conundrums with MRI; HCC and different hepatic malignancies: MR imaging; figuring out the canvas: analysis and problem-solving in diffuse liver ailment; gallbladder and biliary (MRCP); MR of kidney and adrenal glands; prostate MR; MR of focal liver plenty; MR of pancreas; MR enterography; gadolinium distinction agent choice and optimum use for physique MRI; MR angiography and venography of stomach and pelvis; sensible MR imaging; and masses extra!
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Extra info for Radiologic Clinics Of North America Body MR Imaging
Although similar in principle to spiral CT angiography, contrast-enhanced MRA holds considerable advantages. Beyond the absence of ionizing radiation and the ability to depict large vascular territories in three-dimensional imaging volumes, harmful side effects of the paramagnetic contrast agents used for the MRA examination are considerably less frequent and less severe than those associated with the iodinated contrast used in CT angiography. Paramagnetic contrast agents are nonnephrotoxic and have a low incidence of anaphylactoid reactions .
Fig. 5. A 28-year-old man with coarctation of the aorta. Note the dilated proximal left subclavian artery. (A) Sagittal maximum intensity projection projection. (B) Corresponding sagittal multiplanar reformation. M. Vogt et al / Radiol Clin N Am 41 (2003) 29–41 Central thoracic veins Thrombosis of systemic chest veins is an important cause of morbidity in patients with malignancy, hematologic disease, or long-term indwelling catheters. Prompt diagnosis and adequate therapy need to be provided to restore patency of the veins.
The use of short TRs is mandatory to avoid T2* effects and can only be achieved using the most powerful gradient systems. The short TR and echo time reduce susceptibility artifacts and lead to extremely short data acquisition times. Reductions in acquisition time by a factor of two or three can be achieved at similar temporal and spatial resolution in comparison with conventional segmented k-space gradient echo imaging. Other potential applications could be the real-time assessment of intimal flap movement in aortic dissection delineating the relationship to branch vessels and possible occlusion of these during systolic or diastolic phase.