By Anish Bhardwaj, Nabil J. Alkayed, Jeffrey R. Kirsch, Richard J. Traystman
Because the 3rd major reason behind demise within the usa, stroke bills for one in each fifteen deaths and is the foremost reason behind incapacity within the state. Compiled through a well known editorial group, this reference bridges the distance among easy technology and sufferer care protocols, and collects forty three expertly written chapters that diversity from laboratory-based learn on animal types to the development, mechanisms, therapy, and diagnosis of ailments reminiscent of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), focal ischemic stroke, and international cerebral ischemia.
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Additional info for Acute Stroke: Bench to Bedside (Neurological Disease and Therapy)
Swift DM, Solomon RA. Subarachnoid hemorrhage fails to produce vasculopathy or chronic blood flow changes in rats. Stroke 1988; 19:878–882. 112. Rickels E, Zumkeller M. Vasospasm after experimentally induced subarachnoid haemorrhage and treatment with nimodipine. Neurochirurgia (Stuttg) 1992; 35:99–102. 113. Veelken JA, Laing RJ, Jakubowski J. The Sheffield model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Stroke 1995; 26:1279–1283; discussion 1284. 114. Bederson JB, Germano IM, Guarino L. Cortical blood flow and cerebral perfusion pressure in a new noncraniotomy model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in the rat.
Further analyses showed histopathologic changes in the basilar artery that were associated with a decreased response to treatment with intra-arterial papaverine. Several experimental studies have been performed with this model. Advantages include a well-defined course of vasospasm that is comparable to that of humans, accessible percutaneous angiography, and histopathologic and pharmacologic changes. Disadvantages include limited monoclonal antibodies for analysis, elevated cost, and the need for a second injection.
Arterial blood is withdrawn and allowed to clot, and the resulting clot is sectioned into fragments that are placed adjacent to the exposed vessels (Fig. 1). A repeat angiogram is obtained 7 days after surgery, and vasospasm is determined by comparison with the preoperative angiogram (Fig. 2). Angiographic vessel narrowing ranges from 31% to 100% and typically occurs in all animals (30). Severe vasospasm, defined as a reduction >50% in arterial caliber, was present in only approximately 25% of the animals.