By Abdulrahman Yarali
From the transition of analog to electronic verbal exchange besides seamless mobility and excessive computing strength of small hand held units, the instant communications has obvious super alterations resulting in the combination of numerous telecommunication networks, units and companies over final 30 years. the speed of this development and development has elevated quite long ago decade simply because humans now not use their units and networks for voice merely, yet call for package deal contents equivalent to facts download/streaming, HDTV, HD video , 3D video conferencing with better potency, seamless connectivity, intelligence, reliability and higher person event. even if the demanding situations dealing with carrier companies and telecommunication businesses fluctuate by way of product, area, marketplace dimension, and their components of focus yet time to industry, effective usage in their resources and profit enlargement, have impacted considerably the best way to deal with and behavior their company whereas protecting enough margin.
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Additional resources for 4G & Beyond. The Convergence of Networks, Devices, and Services
Rahman, B. 2, April 2008. 11ac Migration Guide,” Meraki, Inc, 2013. 11ad Explained,” Application Note. 11ac: The Fifth Generation of Wi-Fi, August 2012. E. Perahia, M. X. 11ad,” Intel Corporation. The Road Towards Densified and HetNet Gigabit Wireless Networks 33  Yarali, A. Cherry, B. Ahsant, “FMC: The Convergence of Networks, Device, and Services,” ICDT2010, June 12-20, 2010, Glyfada-Athens, Greece.  White Paper,” Femtocell and Fixed-Mobile Convergence,” NGT Research Series, 2014.  Yarali, K.
Mobile CNs) can make multimedia contents directly available to others. The eighth requirement is associated with the cost for deploying a new management mobility protocol, which should be evaluated from the point of view of network provider. In addition, novel deployments should be transparent to the end-user, avoiding any upgrade on terminal/software. 42 José André Moura and Christopher Edwards The ninth requirement evaluates how well a management mobility protocol scales in terms of the number of mobile and correspondent nodes.
LTE and later on LTEA were designed as an upgrade to 2G and 3G systems that were in use previously. In an attempt to meet the standards proposed by ITU, LTE includes several specifications and features that are far superior to pre-LTE technologies, while still falling short of the outlined ITU specifications. The 4G requirements set by ITU’s for IMT-A (IMT-Advanced) is an significant improvement in the standardization of the evolution of wireless mobile communication systems, particularly for LTE and LTE-A.